Long lasting, cost-effective solutions for water-related applications, integrating our customers’ know-how with KELLER’s H2O-expertise.

Reducing Drinking Water Losses

Hydraulic Network Analysis

Water Levels Control at Fish Farm

Pressure Probes on Water Pipelines

Accurate Data Key to Making Water Distribution Networks Smart

i2O provides a suite of smart network solutions to help water utilities respond cost effectively to the major challenges they face the world over. Actionable insight and automatic optimisation rely on timely and accurate data. KELLER provides pressure sensing product best suited to the requirements of high precision at a wide range of points of interest within the network.

Key challenges of the water industry

i2O solutions provide a quick and cost-effective way to deal with the challenges the industry faces.


dNet enables you to place accurate, reliable and affordable i2O loggers at points of interest in your network, configure, view and analyse data from your entire logger estate.

oNet enables remote control and automatic optimisation of pressure at PRVs and pumps across your entire network.


Example of a smart water distribution network


Compact housing developed by i2O to use KELLER transmitter

KELLER had been delivering compact sensor headers to i2O since 2008 for use in its data loggers. In 2012 i2O started to develop a new range of data loggers and worked with KELLER to integrate the D-Line PA-20D data transmitters into the new products. A compact customised housing was developed by i2O, in conjunction with KELLER development that incorporates a quick release coupling and allows the transmitter to interface directly with the circuit board, allowing a modular build that aids assembly of the product.

By utilising the I2C bus interface of the transmitter, pressure readings can be read directly into the logger from the transmitter. This means that no analogue circuitry is necessary within the loggers. To achieve the high accuracy requirements of i2O over a temperature range requires specialised calibration by KELLER that is programmed directly into the transmitter during manufacture. This enabled i2O to bring to market an accurate, reliable and affordable logger which delivers timely and valuable data that its clients can rely on for decision making.

Visit i2O’s website to learn more about its smart network solutions.

The success of this project is not only based on technical advantages, it is also characterised by the very close working relationship between two highly competent companies and the customer's direct contact with the developing department, manufacturer and representative.

Hydraulic Network Analysis

Customization of the digital manometer LEO record for a SETEC application of a waterproof pressure recorder body manufactured in stainless steel. The devices are available for the direct installation on above- and underground hydrants.

Conservation of Water and Energy

A large urban water supply and distribution system requires a competent design, a substantial investment, professional management, permanent maintenance and, from time to time, a hydraulic analysis of current and likely future problems. Hydraulic network analysis, based on calibrated models done by real measured flow and pressure, can improve the efficiency and performance of the water supply and distribution system. Wasting less energy by inefficient water transport pumping and inadequate reservoir operation will reduce operating costs.

Network Model Verification

Any hydraulic water supply model has to be verified by subjecting the real network to known operating conditions and comparing calculated and measured flow rates and pressure in order to detect significant data errors. In a low load, night-time situation, all measured hydraulic grades (elevations plus pressures) must add up to nearly the same quasi-hydrostatic values. Discrepancies would indicate errors in elevation data or large unknown leaks. In a high load situation, induced by hydrant discharges or other suitable means, the hydraulic resistances of the main network pipes are checked and hydraulic grades indicate hydraulic blockages.

Field Measurements for Calibration

Field measurements are taken as part of data collection. Taking field measurements involves testing and recording the performance of various system components, recording values for pressure, flow, water consumption to determine real pipe-roughness coefficients. These measurements are used as a supplement to and first check for information provided by water-system records and personnel during the initial stages of data collection.

Physical Data Collection

  • Testing of supply pumps and booster pumps to establish curve characteristics
  • Loss-of-head testing to determine pipe-roughness coefficients
  • Pressure testing on fire hydrants, including areas of high localized demands and known low-pressure areas

Operation Data Collection

  • Continuous 24-h flow recording at selected key locations, such as water production and major trunk mains
  • Hourly flow monitoring on additional key trunk mains and for large-demand customers
  • Continuous pressure monitoring at all continuous-flow record positions and instantaneous pressure monitoring at selected nodes evenly spread over the network such as at fire hydrants
  • Continuous storage-level (hydraulic-elevation) and influence (inflow/outflow) monitoring
  • Continuous monitoring of high-service and booster pump operation, discharge flow and pressure

Network Model Calibration

KELLER Data Loggers evenly spread over the network record synchronized real pressure values used for computing and fine tuning of realistic pipe roughness values as well as to find punctual resistances (partly closed valves; …) for optimal agreement between measured and calculated hydraulic grades for Roughness Calibration.

A verified and calibrated network model may be used to detect and correct hydraulic problems in existing networks and to avoid such problems when designing future network extensions.

Monitoring and Control of Water Levels on a Fish Farm

The fish farm Villitaimen Osuuskunta in Kemijärvi (Lapland) grows several kinds of fish and sells them to hydroelectric power stations. The whole water supply at the fish farm is guaranteed by hydrostatic pressure, as the farm doesn’t use any water pumps. The water flow is regulated manually, whereas KELLER PAA-36 X W level probes monitor the water’s level and temperature. A GSM-2 is installed in the screen well and sends data to a cell phone via SMS informing on the water level and temperature.

Remote Monitoring of Fish Tank Filling Levels

The Villitaimen Osuuskunta fish farm grows trout, grayling and several kinds of white fish from the roe their own mother fish provide. The fish grow on the farm until, after two to four years, they are sold to hydro power plants. The turbines used at such plants impair the fish migration within the river system; thus they buy fish in order to set them into rivers to restock them.

fish tanks for the grown fish Fish tanks for the grown fish.

fish tanks for the grown fish

The whole water supply works with hydrostatic pressure. No water pumps are used at the farm, mainly for security reasons. That way, the farm is not reliant on electrical power supply and the fish are provided with fresh water regardless of potential power cuts. The water flow/level in the screen well is regulated manually with a dam submerged in the river. After flowing freely through several fish tanks, the water flows through a biological refinery back to the river.

The amount of water that can be withdrawn from rivers is legally regulated – a fact that is of great importance to the fish farm owners. The warmer the water, the less oxygen can be dissolved and more water must be tapped from the river in order for the fish to survive. And the survival of the farm and its four employees is directly dependent on the fish stock’s well-being.

Level Probe Guarantees Farm’s Survival

A PAA-36 X W KELLER level probe combined with a GSM-2 are installed in the screen well, measuring the water level and temperature. The GSM-2 is responsible for sending out data on tank filling levels to a computer in the main building of the farm once a day. With that data information on the water flow and amount of dissolved oxygen is given and the dam can be manually regulated.

The screen well can sometimes clog with various objects swimming in the river and cause the water level to drop. In that case the GSM-2 sends out an alarm (SMS, FTP i or Email communication) to an employee’s cell phone.

GSM-2 installed in the screen well

Installing the tube for the PAA-36XWInstalling the tube for the PAA-36 X W

The complete installation with external antenna. In the background the farm’s main building housing the fry and the mother fish.

As the farm depends on hydrostatic pressure alone, a level probe is the perfect solution to guarantee its existence and to ensure that its processes run as smoothly as possible.

Pressure Probes on Water Pipelines

Reliable pressure measurements in tough environments. Water distribution systems form the backbone of modern civilisation. Huge volumes of water have to be able to travel the long distance between their source and the end consumer efficiently and reliably. Not only can leaks in the distribution system lead to the valuable liquid being lost – escaping water can also alter the subsoil, necessitating costly repairs. Leak-tight pipelines are thus a key part of a functioning supply system that delivers value for money.

When new distribution pipelines are manufactured, therefore, their leak-tightness is tested and documented right from this early stage. The verification process, generally known as a pressure test, requires the pipelines to withstand pressure of 16 bar for an hour. The manometer’s display screen enables employees to track pressure levels on site throughout the test. A significant drop in pressure during the test indicates a leaking pipeline, which can be fixed while still at the production stage.

Once the measurement process is complete, a computer is used to read off the measurements recorded by the manometer, plot them on a graph and make them available to the end customer. KELLER provides the necessary software free of charge.

The on-site pressure test requires a sturdy, reliable and easy-to-use device that can record both pressure and temperature (temperature fluctuations affect the pressure in the test pipeline) autonomously for an extended period of time. BRINER AG, a leading service and retail company for construction-related industries based in Winterthur, Switzerland, has been using KELLER’s LEO Record autonomous datalogger i for this purpose for many years with great success.

“The LEO Record is so easy to operate that even temporary staff can use it unsupervised after a brief introduction”, says Fabian Lenz, Head of Supply System Sales at BRINER AG.

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